On June 27, 1864, Union armies under the command of General William T. Sherman and Confederates under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston clashed at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. Despite its names, much of the battle is actually fought to the southwest of Kennesaw Mountain, near Marietta, Georgia.
Almost half of the enlisted men and many of of the officers in the Union Army of the Southwest at the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, spoke German as their first language.
On July 2, 1863, Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens embarks on a mission to Washington D.C., to discuss the prisoner of war issue. Abraham Lincoln refuses to meet with him.
After six weeks of being under siege, the soldiers and civilians of Vicksburg, Mississippi, were out of food and supplies. On July 4, 1863, Confederate Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton surrenders the city and his army to Ulysses S. Grant. The resentment of this event endured even longer in Vicksburg. The city refused to celebrate Independence Day for the next eight decades.